In light of today's market, the amplifier is. MOSFET DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER (TWO-WEEK LAB) BACKGROUND The MOSFET is by far the most widely used transistor in both digital and analog circuits, and it is the backbone of modern electronics. PMOS replaces the NMOS (Units 2 and 4) in this unit, to provide familiarity with common to the NMOS and PMOS. This letter presents a fully integrated cross‐coupled quadrature voltage‐controlled oscillator (QVCO) using common‐gate transistor instead of common‐source transistor as a coupling device. MOSFET Amplifier Mini project 1. 1 General Considerations 9. The cascode amplifier consists of common source (CS) and common gate (CG) configuration to achieve higher Usually NMOS and PMOS devices must be fabricated on the same substrate and for this reason PMOS device is placed in a local substrate called a well as shown in Fig. The common mode feedback circuit comprises a nMOS input stage differential amplifier and a pMOS input stage differential amplifier which are connected in parallel, and a push-pull CMOS amplifier for converting current outputs from the nMOS and the pMOS input stage differential amplifiers to an output voltage signal. The FET common gate amplifier circuit is the least widely used, but it does possess some characteristics that can be put to good use in some applications. Razavi, “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits”, McGraw-Hill, 2001. Measure DC operating voltages at each circuit nodes, voltage gain, input, output impedance of the amplifier and compare the values to the Prelab. But, you'll find that it's almost omnipresent in the second stages of most MOS opamps because it has a low gain. Calculate the voltage gain and the output resistance R o for the load resistance R d equal to : (a) 300 k-ohm (b) 600 k-ohm and (c) 900 k-ohm. The frequency at which the small signal short circuit current gain of an intrinsic MOS transistor drops to unity is called transit frequency(fT). Output load resistor R L is chosen such that, for the desired nominal drain current I D , the voltage appearing at V DS is approximately halfway between the positive supply voltage V P (+5 V) and the negative supply voltage V N (–5 V). The basic knowledge of NMOS and PMOS is required as these are the key components of a huge design such as Digital Signal Processor and RF modules. A self-biased common-source amplifier which is very similar to the bipolar version on Lab Chip 3 is designed with MOS transistors. 5 V, (W/L)-(W/L)2-5. 3 Two-Stage Op Amps 9. 45 Rangkaian Ekivalen Common-Source amplifier. The common-source MOS circuit can be used as a logic inverter with the "low" voltage level close to 0 V and the "high" level close to VDD. By far the most common type of FET is the NMOS (n-channel), enhancement mode transistor A positive v GS turns it on NMOS, PMOS, Enhancement, Depletion,… [2 ( ) 2] i D = K n v GS − V TN v DS − v DS [] 2 i D =K n v GS − V TN. And the gain of the common source amplifier, V out over V in, is equal to negative RD in parallel with RL divided by RS plus RS in parallel with R3, so RS is dependent on GM and GM is dependent on the DC bias of the transistor, if we substitute in the values here, we get that the gain of this common source amplifier is equal to negative 14. 48 Gain magnitude versus frequency 49 Source follower. As you all know, amplifiers are used to amplify an electrical signal to a desired value. MOSFET common-source amplifier - Common-source amplifier = small-signal voltage amplifier - Common-source amplifier is similar to the BJT common-emitter amplifier - In a MOSFET amplifier, the input resistance can be made infinitely large (or kept finite if necessary) - An analog of the BJT emitter follower is the MOSFET source follower. Add as many NMOS or PMOS transistors as you wish; note that body of an NMOS transistor must be tied to the most-negative supply rail (ground in this example), while the body (i. Simulate the operation of these amplifiers. So, bottom NMOS is ON and it removes the base charge of Q2, if any and makes sure that Q2 is OFF. The output is simply equal to the input minus about 2. NMOS (and PMOS) with W/L = 10/Lmin ; NMOS (and PMOS) with W/L = 20/(2*Lmin) The stacked (2 NMOS/PMOS in series) NMOS/PMOS with W/L = 20/Lmin; For the stacked device, 2 MOS's are connected in series with their gates tied together to the same gate voltage, and their substrates both connected to ground for NMOS or to Vdd for PMOS. asc): Proposed exercises: 8. of Vds steps. Both amplifiers are based on the PMOS, as in the projects. NMOS Spice modeling: Example • File nmoschar. The schematic diagrams of an NMOS and PMOS are presented in Figure 5-1. To serve the purpose, a generic voltage divider is constructed using two simple resistors: R1 and R2. à ç L C à Ç E C à É (1. The NMOS transistor parameters are VTN = 1. TRANSISTOR AND AMPLIFIER FORMULAS 301 Collector substrate C cs D C cso [1 V sc/ os]1/2 Transition frequency f T D 1 2 g m C CC Thermal voltage V T D kT q D 0. • Use markers A and B and find out the input linear range (constant gain range) of a common-source amplifier. 1(b) without a PMOS device. Copy & Paste Videos on YouTube and Earn $100 to $300 Per Day - FULL TUTORIAL (Make Money Online) - Duration: 22:51. Rangkaian Ekivalen Common-Source amplifier. NMOS AND PMOS TRANSISTORS Operation in the Cutoff Region Operation in the Triode Region Operation in the Saturation Region MOSFET Summary LOAD-LINE ANALYSIS OF A SIMPLE NMOS AMPLIFIER Amplifier Analysis The Fixed- Plus Self-Bias Circuit SMALL-SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS COMMON-SOURCE AMPLIFIERS The Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit Voltage Gain. 5: NMOS COMMON-SOURCE AMPLIFIER ( 5. The proposed complementary CMOS parallel push-pull (CCPP) amplifier gives an order of magnitude improvement in IP/sub 2/ than an NMOS common-source amplifier and single-balanced CCPP resistive mixer, which functions effectively as a double-balanced one, provides more than an order of magnitude better linearity in IP/sub 2/, and similar order of. The channel is electrically induced by applying a positive voltage to the gate that by field effect, attracts electrons and pushes the holes of the interface p-substrate. 10 High-Slew-Rate Op Amps 9. In this circuit the MOSFET converts variations in the gate-source voltage into a small signal drain current which passes through a resistive load and generates the amplified voltage across the load resistor. The performances of the three source followers are observed using EDA Tool Tanner V14. Cmos Transistor Designs with Magic VLSI- Part 3: Nmos Load Common Source Amplifier In this work i used width to length ratios as; (W/L)1/(W/L)2=100 Layout of the design Particle Accelerator Cavities. 53 Drain current versus vGS in the saturation. VOD + 200 NF {RVout Will 200 NF 1 KΩ Rgen Agen For This Problem Assume The Reference Resistor And Generator Resistor Are Rref = 60. Now, we had to add another transistor, Q1, which was an NMOS common source amplifier that used the current mirror from Task 1 as an active load. In this tutorial we are going to simulate an NMOS Common-Source Amplifier with Enhancement Diode Load. In the first stage, transistors M1A and M1B form the NMOS differential pair, while the transistors M2A and M2B are the PMOS. Repeat for the PMOS (common source). However, becasue the transition into triode is not abrupt, amplifier performance may degrade even when voltages are within but near the boundaries of these. circuits, in which second order terms appear as common mode signals and hence highly rejected in the differential outputs. Common Source multisim simulation using 2N7000 MOSFET connection at 2:50. A label of. Section 2: Common Source with source degeneration (partial Rs bypassed) Common source with source degeneration (CSwRsf) Designing procedure of common source MOSFET amplifier with source degeneration can be grouped into three systematic stages. 3V; DC Gain ≥ 60 dB; GBW = as high as possible; Phase Margin ≥ 60. 8V, Kn = 1mA/V2, And λ = 0. The pMOS differential amplifier is realized using transistors M 21 − 28 and its CMFB network with transistors 29 M. 1 shows an NMOS Common-Source (Source is common between Gate and Drain) amplifier circuit. 0) Essential Formulas Region NMOS PMOS Saturation v DS v DS v SD v SD Transition Point v DS v GS V TN. Common source amplifiers are not used on their own in electronic circuits nowadays, mainly because of its low gain. Tail of first stage was designed in PMOS to achieve high PSRR [1]. I D V GS n-Channel JFET p-Channel JFET Common source Common emitter R in D R G D R 1jjR 2 R in. The load for the amplifier is a 1MOhms resistor. Therefore, Current Source I1 drives the PMOS transistor. Assume that the PMO device has an overdrive voltage twice the NMOS overdrive voltage. 6 Current mirror circuit. The basic transistor amplifier stages are seen as realizations of different controlled sources using negative feedback. Barnaby 8 iv. 9um which is a commonly used size for analog circuit designer. To make a simple common source Amplifier using N channel single MOSFET, the important thing is to achieve DC biasing condition. TWO STAGE OTA DESIGN Kalpana Manickavasagam, Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University. Question: The Common-source Amplifier Circuit Is Biased So That Transconductance Of The NMOS Transistor Is: 8m = 1 MA/V2. Two more resistors are also required as Drain resistor and Source resistor. As it had been discussed above the amplifier just works around an operating point. Because this topic is relevant primarily to IC implementation, we will use an NMOS model that is specific to 0. The configuration, shown in Figure 1, demonstrates the NMOS transistor used as the common source amplifier. In a clock distribution network based on double-input double-output and double-input single-output clock inverters, the probability that single-event transient pulses generated on the DIDO inverter are propagated to clock leaf nodes is zero. 5/6/2011 The Common Source Amp with current source 1/11 The Common Source Amp with a Current Source Now consider this NMOS amplifier using a current source. In this example, the signal enters the gate, and exits the drain. In addition you will design the amplifier according to specifications. Ideally, the DC gain is unity, but a common “mistake” is to assume that this can be obtained in reality. the body effect of the source follower transistor, the voltage gain for the pixel-level readout circuitry approaches unity. 05V Respectively. For Task B. Example Suppose that λp is 0. Common source is the only stage that provides gain. A folded cascode stage with an nmos driven common source amplifier output stage was. 8V) and NMOS transistors can operate in common-mode input voltages from (VDD-1. Common source zIn the common source amplifier, the input is used to modulate the GS voltage, and the DS voltage is the output, giving a voltage gain depending on the load line: Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley EECS 105 Spring 2004, Lecture 25 Prof. This is a source follower or buffer amplifier circuit using a MOSFET. Braille Display Using Karnaugh Maps We implemented the basic K-Maps logic to display characters in Braille language, using discrete components and ICs. 6 Simulation Results Figure 6 shows the TIA using PMOS active inductor load. The biasing is done by fixing the gate voltage with a voltage divider and also by using a source resistor RS. The second stage is a common source amplifier. As you all know, amplifiers are used to amplify an electrical signal to a desired value. GPDK process. Figure 1(a) is a common source amplifier with ideal current source load. Using the definition of γ and ω. The Gain is Vout/Vin so the gain is 5 for the Pmos and 7 for the Nmos amplifier. This discussion about the NMOS transistor is relevant also to a PMOS transistor that you would use as the current-sinking device in a Class B output stage (discussed in Part 2). You may need some modifications in the equations for the PMOS common-source amplifier. 6 Output Swing 9. The third-stage circuit inverts the signal and operates as follows: When V 4 is low, V 5 follows V 4 by source follower operation of mp9 and mp10, and V o2 output is constant because the source-gate. Nov 2, 2016 #2 As for NMOS input and PMOS input, they are exactly the same in operating principle. a) Assuming λ-0 for all transistors, find the required DC gate- source voltages of M1 and M2 (VGsı and VGs2, respectively) BIAS VD out b) Again assuming 0 M2 for all transistors, what is the minimum DC value of VouT for which the amplifier works in high. NMOS pair (M1, M2) and a PMOS pair (M3, M4). ITOTAL ≤150μA Voltage gain (vout/vin): larger than 35dB Bandwidth: larger than 10MHz (fH,3 ,3dB L dB−f). The MOSFET circuit is biased in class A mode by the voltage divider network formed by resistors R1 and R2. Design Using the CMOS common source amplifier configuration shown in Error! Reference source not found. n-well) of a PMOS transistors can be tied to the most-positive supply rail (VDD in this example) or to the source b. Experiment 1: Construct common emitter (CE) amplifiers simulated in the pre-lab analysis 1. When body effect included: We can use Taylor Series Expansion in three. Here a biasing voltage of 250mV is given to the circuit. 8 Block diagram for an integrated operational amplifier 2. !!!!! CMOS inverter Add a PMOS transistor (MbreakP3 from the Breakout menu) to make a CMOS inverter, as shown below. (a) A small AC signal is superimposed on the DC gate bias, creating an AC drain current. The configuration, shown in Figure 1, demonstrates the NMOS transistor used as the common source amplifier. Re: Common Source Single stage amplifier with PMOS diode connected Load So I have a question about this topology. the nMOS and pMOS common–source amplifiers of the output stage, respectively. In this circuit the source terminal of the transistor serves as the input, the drain is the output and the gate is connected to ground, or "common," hence its name. It is a good choice to set the lengths of transistors to 0. Note that v SIG and R SIG represent the ac signal source and its. Calculate the drain current and the drain-to-source voltage for the common-source amplifier below. The remaining terminal is what is known as "common". Parameters for the NMOS and PMOS on the CD4007 will be provided by the TA for use in the design section. Clearly, when the input common mode voltage approaches ground, the gate-source voltage of the current switching transistor - is positive and this transistor is off forcing the NMOS input pair to be off as well. Calculate the voltage gain and the output resistance R o for the load resistance R d equal to : (a) 300 k-ohm (b) 600 k-ohm and (c) 900 k-ohm. 25v (for 5v supply). model name PMOS/NMOS level=num The model is generally provided either in the assign-ment (in the case of this course) or by the manufac-turer in the case of an IC foundry. Input linear range is a range over which output value varies linearly with input value. This yields the equivalent circuit of Figure 5. That is, all the stray. 259 V FET Symbols NMOS Depletion. The use of a single-ended common-source cascode amplifier with ground rail regulation improves the PSRR of the column-parallel analog front-end circuitry and further the noise performance. Single Stage Amplifiers •Basic Concepts •Common Source Stage •Source Follower •Common Gate Stage •Cascode Stage Hassan Aboushady University of Paris VI • B. One advantage that NMOS has over PMOS is switching speed — NMOS is generally quicker. Change DC bias current IB. 0133V-1, Q-point is (0. The Class A amplifier reference design is shown in Fig. − Determine W 5 & Bias Voltagefrom power consumption & CM min. of Vgs steps = 5; Vds start = 0V, Vds step = 8V, no. Because this topic is relevant primarily to IC implementation, we will use an NMOS model that is specific to 0. PMOS gate voltage is low, switch is on. How do I calculate the W and L for all transistors ? 2. MOSFET Amplifier Mini project 1. The protot. The first stage is a differential pair with a current mirror load. PMOS current sources. This article explains basic structure of common source amplifier and how to design it for a given specification. 7 Volts is lost across the diodes so the output will be lower than expected compared with using ideal components. Common source amplifier Common gate amplifier NMOS Cascode Stage EE105Spring2008 Lecture20,Slide13 Prof. In electronics, a common-source amplifier is one of three basic single-stage field-effect transistor (FET) amplifier topologies, typically used as a voltage or transconductance amplifier. Unfortunately, I've had a few problems and don't seem to be making any progress. (b) Determine g m and r o. 7 GHz LNA is fabricated in a TSMC 0. 18um CMOS process to maximize voltage gain. A) Consider The Measured Data Of The MOSFETs Within The ALD1105 Package Shown Below Which Are Used In Lab #5 And Lab #6. 2 mA/V2, Vr,-0. λp becomes small; thus, (7) becomes approximately (3)). When a negative voltage is applied at the gate of an NMOS transistor, it switches off; a positive voltage turns it on. It is possible to use the bulk terminal of a transistor as an input of an amplifier. The requirements for the circuit are: Driving a load of 500 Ohms; Maximum drain current of 100mA; Maximum (W/L) of 1000; Gain of 20dB (10V/V) at 10kHz. The basic transistor amplifier stages are seen as realizations of different controlled sources using negative feedback. • Designed a 1:10 current mirror common source amplifier with active PMOS load and a 1:10 cascode common source amplifier and simulated the same on cadence for the given specifications in TSMC 0. ES330 Laboratory Experiment No. Low Frequency Small Signal Equivalent Circuit Figure 1( c) shows its low frequency equivalent circuit. CH7 CMOS Amplifiers 5 Current Sources When in saturation region, a MOSFET behaves as a current source. 5V + – v O r out R bias v IN M1 M2 M3 V DD = 15 V g bias Integrated-circuit common-source. See project Fixed Speed Wind Turbine. Integrated circuits use both NMOS and PMOS circuitry. The parameter fT is used assess the speed of an intrinsic MOS transistor Transit frequency of MOS transistor The small-signal equivalent circuit of a MO. They have been chosen so as to provide a walk through the core concepts and components of analog and digital electronics. • We will show that this configuration makes the common source amplifier more linear. To make a simple common source Amplifier using N channel single MOSFET, the important thing is to achieve DC biasing condition. 12 6 Analyze one transistor (MOSFET, BJIT) amplifier circuit (draw DC, AC, small signal model equivalent circuits, find their parameters and parameters of amplifier). of Vgs steps = 5; Vds start = 0V, Vds step = 8V, no. 8V) and NMOS transistors can operate in common-mode input voltages from (VDD-1. 5V single-sided supply. Output Resistance of a Cascode amplifier (using small signal model) F. Notice in Figure 6. But usually we try not to push it too hard so 10V-15V is common for Vgs for this type. * Note no resistors or capacitors are present! * This is a common source amplifier. NJFET PMOS Depletion. It is a good choice to set the lengths of transistors to 0. 4 Source Follower 7. 45V swing) EECS240 Lecture 4 33 Small Signal Design Summary • Determine g m (from design objectives) • Pick L • Short channel Æhigh f T. The case for the PMOS transi - sor is similar but not discussed in this article for brevity. The last stage is a simple CS NMOS amplifier loaded with an active PMOS current source. Audio Amplifier Circuit Using Mosfet Transistor: How to make an audio amplifier using just one mosfet transistor An audio power amplifier (or power amp) is an electronic amplifier that strengthens low-power, inaudible electronic audio signals such as the signal from radio receiver or electric gu. A CMOS inverter has a PMOS and an NMOS transistor that is connected at the gate and drain terminals, a voltage supply VDD at the PMOS source terminal, and a GND connected at the NMOS source terminal, where Vin is connected to the gate terminals and Vout is connected to the drain terminals. 3 shows that two major MOSFET capacitances are C gs and C. Because both PMOS and NMOS devices are used in this circuit, it is called a complementary MOS (CMOS) circuit. Transistors M7, M8, M11 and M12 are operate in sub-threshold while transistors M9 and M10 operate in strong inversion while. In electronics, a common-gate amplifier is one of three basic single-stage field-effect transistor (FET) amplifier topologies, typically used as a current buffer or voltage amplifier. Najmabadi, ECE102, Fall 2012 (2 /17) Cascode amplifier is a two-stage, CS-CG configuration. Unfortunately, I've had a few problems and don't seem to be making any progress. I want to design a common source amplifier that can provide gain of -28dB at 180nm technology. The two input transistor pairs will have independent and uncorrelated input offset voltages, temperature coefficients and noise. Common-Source Amplifier: •VBIAS, RD and W/L of MOSFET selected to bias transistor in saturation and obtain desired output bias point (i. (b) Determine g m and r o. Modern IC chips contain billions of transistors, of which those used for digital CMOS logic form the majority. Common-source amplifier with current-source supply Reading assignment: Howe and Sodini, Ch. Re: Common Source Single stage amplifier with PMOS diode connected Load So I have a question about this topology. Joseph Elias; Dr. IC Amplifiers- IC biasing Current steering circuit using MOSFET- MOSFET current sources- PMOS and NMOS current sources. Question: The Common-source Amplifier Circuit Is Biased So That Transconductance Of The NMOS Transistor Is: 8m = 1 MA/V2. Biasing using a Drain-to-Gate Feedback Resistor 4. Because this topic is relevant primarily to IC implementation, we will use an NMOS model that is specific to 0. The first stage is a pMOS differential pair with nMOS current mirrors. 5 V Assumes V BE = 0. In addition you will design the amplifier according to specifications. (v DS > v GS - V T) No guess needed. In this NMOS structure, there is no physical built-in n-channel between the drain and the source branches. For medium levels. transistors are pMOS instead of nMOS. Find the widths and lengths of all transistors and the value of current mirror resistor given Kn' = 350 µA/V2 , Kp' = 80 µA/V2 , VAN' = 5 V/µm, VAP' = 6 V/µm, VT = 0. The easiest way to tell if a FET is common source, common drain , or common gate is to examine where the signal enters and leaves. The schematic diagrams of an NMOS and PMOS are presented in Figure 5-1. M3+ and M3– with diode connections utilize for M4+ and M4– biasing and use in M2+ and M2– as a differential loads. Clearly, when the input common mode voltage approaches ground, the gate-source voltage of the current switching transistor - is positive and this transistor is off forcing the NMOS input pair to be off as well. Consider The Six MOSFET Amplifier Circuits Shown Below. 3V And 2 For The NMOS And PMOS Are 0. To set the transistor \(V_{GS}\) voltage for self-biased DC operating point the voltage divider \(\frac{R_1}{R_2}\) is chosen. 2, a DC bias voltage is applied along with the input signal at the input port, Pin. Analysis of Common Source Amplifier using FET. •All p-njunctions are reverse biased. The maximum. Class 08: NMOS, Pseudo-NMOS Dr. Shunt - Series Cascade Amplifier. 5 Common-source amplifier. The drain is biased. PMOS technology is low cost and has a good noise immunity. 2657598 Corpus ID: 21347432. Question is ⇒ A generated voltage is equally dependent on three resistances R 1 , R 2 , R 3 and its value is V = (R 1 R 2 >)/R3. In electronics, a common-gate amplifier is one of three basic single-stage field-effect transistor (FET) amplifier topologies, typically used as a current buffer or voltage amplifier. pMOS inputs are often used, that’s why we studied the pMOS common source amp. 18um CMOS process to maximize voltage gain. The other components are used to provide correct bias. The External Coupling Capacitances Ca = C2 = 1 UF = 106F, But Cs Has An Infinite Value. Stage 1 Amplifier. A PMOS transistor is used as a current source in the VCOs because 1/f noise of PMOS transistors are smaller than that of NMOS’s. You can only use NMOS, PMOS, and resistors in your circuit. VOD + 200 NF {RVout Will 200 NF 1 KΩ Rgen Agen For This Problem Assume The Reference Resistor And Generator Resistor Are Rref = 60. The External Coupling Capacitances Cc = Co2 = 1 UF = 10-6 F, But Cs Has An Infinite Value. Common Source Output Stage 14 • Composed of a common source amplifier with a current driver • A common source PMOS with an NMOS current mirror load or a common source NMOS with a PMOS current mirror load • Current source is mirrored to provide current bias • Supply current consumption of output is more controllable compared to push-pull. Common Source D-MOSFET Amplifier. Compare the common source amplifier with a common emitter amplifier and a an emitter follower with a source follower. 5/6/2011 The Common Source Amp with current source 1/11 The Common Source Amp with a Current Source Now consider this NMOS amplifier using a current source. Amplifier Gain of Differential Amplifier and Common-Source Stage in Cascade. The N-Wells are biased using an on-chip bias circuitry, while the p-substrate is connected to common mode terminal GND. The transistors are described briefly in Table 2. The input is typically connected to the NMOS and a PMOS forms as active load. Question is ⇒ A generated voltage is equally dependent on three resistances R 1 , R 2 , R 3 and its value is V = (R 1 R 2 >)/R3. •All p-njunctions are reverse biased. Here the gain of the amplifier is given by replacing the R D with the corresponding load resistance of NMOS and PMOS diode connected loads. This circuit along with the plot was drafted by Dr. Biasing by fixing V G and connecting a resistance in the Source 3. The External Coupling Capacitances Ca = C2 = 1 UF = 106F, But Cs Has An Infinite Value. Small Signal Analysis of a PMOS transistor Consider the following PMOS transistor to be in saturation. Common Source Amplifier The design of the Common Source Amplifier as well as the testing circuit used for both the DC and AC testing are shown in Figure 8. Determine the current that flow in M3. Design the amplifier for GBW>20MHz and C L=2pF. The model card keywords NMOS and PMOS specify a monolithic N- or P- channel MOSFET transistor. 3(a) and 3(b), respectively are employed. its source terminal in a configura-tion known as NMOS transistor with source degeneration. This lab will utilize the ZVN3306A and ZVP3306A MOSFETs. M | M V VOD Iii) IV) Find A Relationship For The Voltage Gain Of Each Circuit. 1(a), which oscillates at several GHz, has smaller phase noise than NMOS’s in Fig. JFET as Common Source Amplifier 0 Credits Read more; NMOS and PMOS Long-Channel Devices 0 Credits Read more; NMOS and PMOS Short-Channel devices 0 Credits Read more; Transistors BJT JFET MOSFET as amplifiers and switches 10 Credits Add to cart; Two stage BJT amplifier 0 Credits Read more. Lastly, this lab is go over some basic characteristics of push pull amplifiers. And similarly on the NMOS when the gate voltage is low, the switch is off. 1pF and Rsig=100Ω - Itotal no more than 100µA. Adjustable resistor Rpot sets the nominal bias operating point for the transistor (V GS) to set the required. Figure 1(a) is a common source amplifier with ideal current source load. This different structure is referred with the mention “enhanced”. The value of b 1 is computed by summing the individual time constants, called the “sum of the open-circuit time constants. 6 Output Swing 9. It is operated with low supply voltages as the PMOS and NMOS transistors are. As a transconductance amplifier, the input voltage is seen as modulating the. 4 KN2 And Rgen = 1 KN As Shown. Using a p-channel MOSFET may place some severe restraints on the gate drive, since the gate must be close to V DD (Figure 1b). The drain is biased. EE40 Lec 19EE40 Lec 19 MOSFET Readinggp y: Chap. Using the. Voltage and current sources can be found in Voltage_Sources and Current_Sources, respectively. TWO STAGE OTA DESIGN Kalpana Manickavasagam, Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University. Common source input stage We will in this subtask look at a Common-Source architecture popular in RF-input stages. limitations [5]. 3V And 2 For The NMOS And PMOS Are 0. A PMOS or NMOS can also be used as a load. NMOS and PMOS symbols in CMOS VLSI schematics design. The general MOSFET amplifier with common source configuration is shown above. The source and drain of a MOS transistor are interchangeable and the carriers flow out of the source and come into the drain. And i S = i D (always for a FET) and. (Use the parameters in Table 9. Moreover, this topology has the advantages of low transconductance and low current consumption. I am trying to design the following amplifier in CMOS 180nm technology in cadence. 1: DC level shifting using PMOS source follower The input signal to the PMOS differential pair is shifted by 𝑉 which is the gate to source voltage of the PMOS source follower. For the source follower amplifier given below, The PMOS. The easiest way to tell if a FET is common source, common drain , or common gate is to examine where the signal enters and leaves. The frequency at which the small signal short circuit current gain of an intrinsic MOS transistor drops to unity is called transit frequency(fT). Set all device parameters (e. 4) However, quite often capacitor C s is omitted from the circuit. 2 NMOS Common-Source Amplifier [Reference: Section 7. • The output stage consists of pmos and nmos common source amplifier. Biasing using a Drain-to-Gate Feedback Resistor 4. Determine minimum channel length 2/22/2011 Insoo Kim Determine channel width − Determine W 1,2 from voltage gain spec. Consider The Following Common Source Amplifier. 2 x o r r g r. NMOS and PMOS symbols in CMOS VLSI schematics design. This is a source follower or buffer amplifier circuit using a MOSFET. 21)In CMOS technology, in digital design, why do we design the size of pmos to be higher than the nmos. 0133V-1, Q-point is (0. Compare the common source amplifier with a common emitter amplifier and a an emitter follower with a source follower. The common mode feedback circuit comprises a nMOS input stage differential amplifier and a pMOS input stage differential amplifier which are connected in parallel, and a push-pull CMOS amplifier for converting current outputs from the nMOS and the pMOS input stage differential amplifiers to an output voltage signal. JFET as Common Source Amplifier 0 Credits Read more; NMOS and PMOS Long-Channel Devices 0 Credits Read more; NMOS and PMOS Short-Channel devices 0 Credits Read more; Transistors BJT JFET MOSFET as amplifiers and switches 10 Credits Add to cart; Two stage BJT amplifier 0 Credits Read more. Calculate the gain of the NMOS common source amplifier with the PMOS current mirror load that was presented in class. Liu, UC Berkeley Reading: Chapter 7. (note that I D = 20 μ A for the tail current source). It also lacks the an important characteristic of basic logic, that a NAND gate can be used to create any other logic gate; an AND cannot. Compare numerically for an PMOS 4007 and an pnp 2N3906 both biased. To design a 2-stage, single-ended op-amp with PMOS inputs with the following design specifications. R 1 = 30K, R 2 = 20K, and R D = 20K, K n = 0. Every op-amp will also have a differential amplifier stage. From the PMOS intrinsic gain chart shown in Fig. Simulation of a common-source amplifier using LTSpice: From the transient analysis below we can clearly see that the output of Voutn = 50mV and Voutp = 70mV, and Vin. A CMOS inverter has a PMOS and an NMOS transistor that is connected at the gate and drain terminals, a voltage supply VDD at the PMOS source terminal, and a GND connected at the NMOS source terminal, where Vin is connected to the gate terminals and Vout is connected to the drain terminals. 1: Stage one, the differential amplifier and. device called cascode amplifier [49]. The T1 source is connected to ground (common), while the input signal on the gate will be amplified to the T1 drain. Single-Stage Amplifiers Many aspects of the performance of am plifiers are citical. Set all device parameters (e. 05V Respectively. Resistor \(R_G\) is used to set the final gain of the amplifier. The output resistance of a transmission gate using Vgn=5V, Vgp=0V and a symmetric sine wave with 2. 2 Common-Source Stage 7. The configuration, shown in figure 1, demonstrates the NMOS transistor used as a common source amplifier. The configuration, shown in Figure 1, demonstrates the NMOS transistor used as the common source amplifier. This configuration allows rail-to-rail operation at the input. Consider the following circuit:. Differential amplifier circuit operable with wide range of input voltages US 20070146063A1; Filed: 02/24/2006; Published: 06/28/2007; Est. MOSFET Amplifier Mini project 1. Due Date: November 5th Download the lab here Your mission (if you choose to accept…. Basically, all other things being equal, an NMOS device will have higher current flow than a PMOS device with the same gate-source. of Vgs steps = 5; Vds start = 0V, Vds step = 8V, no. Resonators. The External Coupling Capacitances Cc = Co2 = 1 UF = 10-6 F, But Cs Has An Infinite Value. This is a source follower or buffer amplifier circuit using a MOSFET. second stage a common source stage. To return gate control to a more acceptable logic format, add an n-channel MOSFET (Figure 3). Output load resistor R L is chosen such that, for the desired nominal drain current I D , the voltage appearing at V DS is approximately halfway between the positive supply voltage V P (+5 V) and the negative supply voltage V N (–5 V). Text (Baker) 20. Open-Circuit Time Constant Analysis We consider each capacitor in the overall circuit one at a time by setting every other small capacitor to an open circuit and letting independent voltage sources be short circuits. Figure 1(b) is its implementation using PMOS with constant gate voltage. Aboushady University of Paris VI • Amplification is an essential function in most analog circuits ! • Why do we amplify a signal ? • The signal is too small to drive a load • To overcome the noise of a. cross-coupled common-gate (CG) input based. Assume The The Nmos Devices Have Small Signal Parameters Of 9mn And Ron And The Pmos Devices Have Small Signal. The Circuit Parameters Are RD= 4kΩ, R1 = 225 KΩ, R2 = 175 KΩ And RL= ∞ A) Calculate; VG And VGSQ [4 Marks] Gm And Ro [2 Marks] B) Draw The Small-signal Ac Equivalent Circuit [5 Marks] C) Determine The Small-signal. Copy & Paste Videos on YouTube and Earn $100 to $300 Per Day - FULL TUTORIAL (Make Money Online) - Duration: 22:51. A cascode configuration combines two different class amplifier stages into one stage, usually a transconductance amplifier stage with a current buffer stage. Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 9 Common-Source Amplifiers Voltage Gain Example • Problem: Calculate voltage gain, input resistance and maximum input signal level for a common-source amplifier with a specified Q-point • Given data: K n = 0. For each stage, we wish to study both the large-signal and small-signal properties. The configuration, shown in Figure 1, demonstrates the NMOS transistor used as the common source amplifier. Hi, I'm studying microelectronic circuits theory using sedra smith book. I D V GS n-Channel JFET p-Channel JFET Common source Common emitter R in D R G D R 1jjR 2 R in. I am currently working on designing a Common Source amplifier with NMOS transistors. Building Blocks of Integrated Circuit Amplifiers: Part A: NMOS PMOS NPN PNP C: Collector B: Base E: Emiter D: Drain G: Gate S: Source. Figure 5-1: Schematic diagram of an NMOS and PMOS transistor. References H. pMOS inputs are often used, that’s why we studied the pMOS common source amp. SPICE Parameters and Pin Diagram. 5 o For both NMOS and PMOS, while. The second stage is a common source amplifier. Yes, you can use NMOS for gate drain load for your CS amplifier. PMOS and NMOS switches must turn off simultaneously. • Use markers A and B and find out the input linear range (constant gain range) of a common-source amplifier. In this NMOS structure, there is no physical built-in n-channel between the drain and the source branches. In this article, we will explore the basic MOSFET differential-amplifier configuration by means of conceptual discussion and simulations (i. Lecture 18 OUTLINE • Basic MOSFET amplifier • MOSFET biasing • MOSFET current sources • Common sourceamplifier EE105 Spring 2008 Lecture18, Slide 1Prof. 012 Spring 2007 Lecture 19 3 2. References H. Consider the common source circuit shown in Figure Q2. For the common gate amplifier given below, (a) Calculate I DQ and V DSQ. Flicker Noise (1/f noise, pink noise) • Random trapping and detrapping of the mobile carriers in the channel and within the gate oxide (McWhorther’s model, Hooges’ model). This is a source follower or buffer amplifier circuit using a MOSFET. This type of biasing is often used with enhancement mode MOSFETS and can be useful when operating with a low voltage power supply (V +). These transistors are sized such. The common-drain (CD) amplifier is comparable to the common-collector BJT amplifier. This is consistent with the fact that the linear model does not distinguish between the two types. Biasing by fixing V GS 2. 16 D S=B G + - + - V DS V GS I D 0 2 1 NMOS dc characteristics ***** ** Circuit Description ** ** Netlist of sources, elements, and subcircuits. First, we have to set the Q-point, which is the DC operating point. In this circuit the MOSFET converts variations in the gate-source voltage into a small signal drain current which passes through a resistive load and generates the amplified voltage across the load resistor. cross-coupled common-gate (CG) input based. 9um which is a commonly used size for analog circuit designer. Instead, we use active loads and current sources comprised of MOS transistors. 1 shows an NMOS Common-Source (Source is common between Gate and Drain) amplifier circuit. Pre-lab work. This lab will utilize the ZVN3306A and ZVP3306A MOSFETs. •Substrate (bulk) of a PMOS is connected to the highest potential. The transistors are described briefly in Table 2. Ideal voltage sources can only be used for the supply voltage. , more functions per chip). Problem 1 -Integrated Common Source Amplifier: For the circuit in Fig. 8V, Kn = 1mA/V2, And λ = 0. I am currently working on designing a Common Source amplifier with NMOS transistors. Second stage is a common-source amplifier. 50 Rangkaian Ekivalen Source Follower. TWO STAGE OTA DESIGN Kalpana Manickavasagam, Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University. Output load resistor R L is chosen such that, for the desired nominal drain current I D , the voltage appearing at V DS is approximately halfway between the positive supply voltage V P (+5 V) and the negative supply voltage V N (–5 V). Two-Port Models ¿ Four amplifier types: Voltage, current, trans-G, trans-R tests to find amplifier parameters. 1pF and Rsig=100Ω - Itotal no more than 100µA. So the bane is the. Consider The Six MOSFET Amplifier Circuits Shown Below. The design goal is tomaximize the amplification and to explore the limits of voltage gain using a single transistor. 05V1 respectively. One advantage that NMOS has over PMOS is switching speed — NMOS is generally quicker. 3 Linearity of the Gain of the Common-Source Amplifier 51 and using =. Some designers avoid using a PMOS LDO under the per-ception that it generates more noise than a PNP LDO. • The output stage consists of pmos and nmos common source amplifier. To build a common-source amplifier with active load (PMOS) and to measure the. Modern IC chips contain billions of transistors, of which those used for digital CMOS logic form the majority. The biasing is done by fixing the gate voltage with a voltage divider and also by using a source resistor RS. JFET as Common Source Amplifier 0 Credits Read more; NMOS and PMOS Long-Channel Devices 0 Credits Read more; NMOS and PMOS Short-Channel devices 0 Credits Read more; Transistors BJT JFET MOSFET as amplifiers and switches 10 Credits Add to cart; Two stage BJT amplifier 0 Credits Read more. (20 points – 10pts calc. NMOS (and PMOS) with W/L = 10/Lmin ; NMOS (and PMOS) with W/L = 20/(2*Lmin) The stacked (2 NMOS/PMOS in series) NMOS/PMOS with W/L = 20/Lmin; For the stacked device, 2 MOS's are connected in series with their gates tied together to the same gate voltage, and their substrates both connected to ground for NMOS or to Vdd for PMOS. pMOS inputs are often used, that’s why we studied the pMOS common source amp. Shot Noise • Every reverse biased junction generates shot noise which is caused by random carriers. , not too much math or complicated circuit analysis). The second stage can have a gain of about 20, so it’s input doesn’t need to vary by more than 0. 12 of Hambley NMOS versus PMOS ff St ti Ti d NMOS V vGS Cut-o Saturation Triode 0 Vto vDS to+ PMOS Common-Source (CS) Amplifier • The input voltage vs causes vGS to • The changing voltage drop across RD causes vary with time,. An example is taken to illustrate the design procedure and verified using LT spice. Basically, all other things being equal, an NMOS device will have higher current flow than a PMOS device with the same gate-source. Differential gain is given by: Current Source. 5 Summary and Additional Examples. MOSFET DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER (TWO-WEEK LAB) BACKGROUND The MOSFET is by far the most widely used transistor in both digital and analog circuits, and it is the backbone of modern electronics. Equations that govern the operating region of NMOS and PMOS. ds, can be negative! 0 and ignored in the initial design of MOS amplifiers (and we ignore it here). 8V) and NMOS transistors can operate in common-mode input voltages from (VDD-1. 26: NMOS source-follower or common-drain amplifier. 1 and Table. Ideal voltage sources can only be used for the supply voltage. Najmabadi, ECE102, Fall 2012 (12/17) NMOS Cascode current mirror. Question: The Common-source Amplifier Circuit Is Biased So That Transconductance Of The NMOS Transistor Is: Gm = 1 MA/V2. In light of today’s market, the amplifier is. Your email address will not be published. 4 KN2 And Rgen = 1 KN As Shown. M | M V VOD Iii) IV) Find A Relationship For The Voltage Gain Of Each Circuit. transistors are pMOS instead of nMOS. Simplified PMOS / NMOS Differential. A) Consider The Measured Data Of The MOSFETs Within The ALD1105 Package Shown Below Which Are Used In Lab #5 And Lab #6. We offer a simple method for the small-signal analysis and design of this configu-ration. Calculate the node voltage at the drain of the tail current source. Simultaneously, partial cancellation of intrinsic third-order distortion of output-stage. The first stage is a differential pair with a current mirror load. 3 Common-Gate Stage 7. •Conduction takes place beneath gate, between source and drain. 18um technology (length all made 0. NMOS draws current from a point to ground (sinks current), whereas PMOS draws current from V DD to a point (sources current). In addition you will design the amplifier according to specifications. λp becomes small; thus, (7) becomes approximately (3)). Simulate the operation of these amplifiers. You may need some modifications in the equations for the PMOS common-source amplifier. The circuit using NMOS active inductor load has several advantages over the circuit using PMOS active inductor. A direct path exists between V out and the ground node, resulting in a steady-state value of 0 V. 7 Fully differential amplifier with current sources. mental common source amplifier with resistive load. Niknejad Common-Source Amplifier Isolate DC level. The AC input resistance is given as R IN = R G = 1MΩ. 1 and Cadence. R 1 = 30K, R 2 = 20K, and R D = 20K, K n = 0. Learning Outcome Able to: • Describe the mechanism by which a differential-mode signal and common-mode signal are produced in a MOSFET differential-amplifier. So if the circuit was originally a common-source circuit it will become a source-follower, and if it was originally a source-follower it will become a common-source circuit. You may need some modifications in the equations for the PMOS common-source amplifier. So, bottom NMOS is ON and it removes the base charge of Q2, if any and makes sure that Q2 is OFF. CMOS or complimentary of metal oxide silicon is widely used in analog or digital design. 5V + - v O r out R bias v IN M1 M2 M3 V DD = 15 V g bias Integrated-circuit common-source. 2, a DC bias voltage is applied along with the input signal at the input port, Pin. 1 shows a second amplifier stage after the diff. Question: The Common-source Amplifier Circuit Is Biased So That Transconductance Of The NMOS Transistor Is: 8m = 1 MA/V2. (c) Find the AC small signal voltage gain A v = v o /v i. Practical amplifiers may consist of several cascaded stages (for high gain and power output). We have used a resistor in place of current source. The other topology is made of a two-stage, common source amplifier to share the operating current and reduce current consumption. The second stage can have a gain of about 20, so it’s input doesn’t need to vary by more than 0. For the MOS transistors, generally in CMOS VLSI circuit schematic NMOS and PMOS are drawn as 3-terminal devices, as shown in the following figure. Laboratory explorations to accompany Microelectronic circuits, sixth edition, Sedra, Smith. In [13], an NMOS in cascode with a PMOS pass transistor is presented. I want to design a common source amplifier that can provide gain of -28dB at 180nm technology. Single stage common source amplifier. A data sheet is attached. 11/30/2010 2 CH7 CMOS Amplifiers 3 Chapter Outline CH7 CMOS Amplifiers 4 MOS Biasing Voltage at X is determined by V DD, R 1, and R 2. Then resistor R s no doubt provides the self-bias (caused by the flow of dc component of drain current) but also provides feedback from output circuit to the input circuit. CMOS multistage voltage amplifier use PMOS CD stage: 5. • We can use hybrid. A PMOS or NMOS can also be used as a load. Small Signal Analysis of a PMOS transistor Consider the following PMOS transistor to be in saturation. Biasing by fixing V GS 2. Consider The Following Common Source Amplifier. Consider The Six MOSFET Amplifier Circuits Shown Below. D ≥ 0 and. Both the PMOS will be ON. Typical common source amplifier circuit. 3 distortion. Every op-amp will also have a differential amplifier stage. Biasing Using a Constant. To set the transistor \(V_{GS}\) voltage for self-biased DC operating point the voltage divider \(\frac{R_1}{R_2}\) is chosen. Practical amplifiers may consist of several cascaded stages (for high gain and power output). Compare numerically for an PMOS 4007 and an pnp 2N3906 both biased. Due Date: November 5th Download the lab here Your mission (if you choose to accept…. NMOS draws current from a point to ground (sinks current), whereas PMOS draws current from V DD to a point (sources current). MOS Amplifier Basics Overview This lab will explore the design and operation of basic single-transistor MOS amplifiers at mid-band. 2 Common‐Source Stage EE105Spring 2008 Lecture18, Slide 2Prof. Hi, I am having trouble with the following question. Determine the current that flow in M3. Vsd < Vsg - |Vt| LINEAR. with a rather small 1/𝑔𝑔. A) Consider The Measured Data Of The MOSFETs Within The ALD1105 Package Shown Below Which Are Used In Lab #5 And Lab #6. An NMOS example. Common Gate amplifier is often used as a current buffer i. One criterion that is considered in making the choice is the common mode input range. Recall that g mb= ηg m. a Source Follower (Cont) 28 2. 7 V V Transistor Type Type NMOS PMOS npn pnp Common Source/ Common Emitter (CS/CE) i SUP V+ V− OUT IN i SUP + V− OUT IN V+ IN OUT − i SUP OUT IN i. NMOS Spice modeling: Example • File nmoschar. Common source amplifier using drain feedback 4. 5 to 10 times of the minimum length (while digital circuits usually use the minimum). We can see that: 12 I SDp I DSn II SDp DSn VV GSn in V in VV DSn out V t V GSn V out V. Design an PMOS Common-Source amplifier that is loaded with a NMOS current mirror. The frequency at which the small signal short circuit current gain of an intrinsic MOS transistor drops to unity is called transit frequency(fT). Changing the biasing resistors (hence changing the gate voltage) can push the NMOS into ohmic operation. Combining NMOS and PMOS Circuits in Cascade. It is possible to use the bulk terminal of a transistor as an input of an amplifier. Objectives The objective of this mini-project is to design and build a NMOS common-source amplifier. That means the differential pair output. As a result of tail cascode, Sooch current mirror[2] was used to bias the cascode with low power consumption of only 11uW in bias circuit. 3 shows that two major MOSFET capacitances are C gs and C. In other words a long channel load acts more like an ideal current source. Small- and large-signal characteristics of each amplifier will be discussed. Low Frequency Small Signal Equivalent Circuit Figure 1( c) shows its low frequency equivalent circuit. 9um which is a commonly used size for analog circuit designer. • Designed a 1:10 current mirror common source amplifier with active PMOS load and a 1:10 cascode common source amplifier and simulated the same on cadence for the given specifications in TSMC 0. In electronics, a common-source amplifier is one of three basic single-stage field-effect transistor (FET) amplifier topologies, typically used as a voltage or transconductance amplifier. 01V−1 for a PMOS transistor with a length of 1µm as specified in the EE 105 technology. mental common source amplifier with resistive load. Method for a Pulse-Based Plasma Impedance Probe System by Arun J Rao, Master of Science Utah State University, 2010. These three circuit configurations correspond to the common-emitter, emitter-follower, and common-base configurations using BJTs. See project Fixed Speed Wind Turbine. However, ro in the MOSFET amplifier is large so we can reasonably ignore its effects for now in the expectation of making the analysis more tractable. The easiest way to tell if a FET is common source, common drain , or common gate is to examine where the signal enters and leaves. The main amplifier is designed using a cascade stage coupled with a Common Source stage. The second stage is a PMOS common source amplifier with an NMOS. Question: Problem 1 - Common Source Amplifier: For The Circuit In Fig. resistance realized by using an active device. * I D stability is not a problem! Q: I don’t understand! Wouldn’t the small-signal circuit be: v O(t. Assume The The Nmos Devices Have Small Signal Parameters Of 9mn And Ron And The Pmos Devices Have Small Signal. EE40 Lec 19EE40 Lec 19 MOSFET Readinggp y: Chap. Re: Common Source Single stage amplifier with PMOS diode connected Load So I have a question about this topology. Image courtesy: CMOS by Jacob Baker. 18um technology (length all made 0. DEBAPRASAD DAS Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering TSSOT, Assam University May 15, 2017 Design Of a CMOS Operational Amplifier Using Cadence Roll No. Two outputs, out1 and out2, are isolated by M13 and M15. M13 is biased by a current mirror comprising of M15 (PMOS) and M16 (PMOS). Repeat for the PMOS (common source). VOD VOD PS Out Out You | M, -ov Out M Vin Vino Vinum. GPDK process. 012 Spring 2007 Lecture 19 3 2. The supply voltage is a 1. IC Amplifiers IC Biasing current steering circuit MOSFET current sources Amplifiers with active load CMOS common source and source follower CMOS Differential amplifier Introduction Integrated-circuit fabrication technology imposes constraints large capacitors are not available very small capacitors are easy to fabricate One objective is to. the nMOS and pMOS common–source amplifiers of the output stage, respectively. Amplifier Categories Common Source Stage. 05V Respectively. 2 NMOS Common-Source Amplifier [Reference: Section 7. Audio Amplifier Circuit Using Mosfet Transistor: How to make an audio amplifier using just one mosfet transistor An audio power amplifier (or power amp) is an electronic amplifier that strengthens low-power, inaudible electronic audio signals such as the signal from radio receiver or electric gu. • As the amount of current required to drive the load is high and also the mobility of the electrons are twice as that of holes the width of the pmos transistor is made twice as that of nmos to attain equal strength for push pull action. CMOS Common Source Amplifier An example of a complementary MOSFET amplifier is shown in In this circuit, Q2 and Q3 form a PMOS current mirror. Common source amplifiers are not used on their own in electronic circuits nowadays, mainly because of its low gain. But, you’ll find that it's almost omnipresent in the second stages of most MOS opamps because it has a low gain. As a result of tail cascode, Sooch current mirror[2] was used to bias the cascode with low power consumption of only 11uW in bias circuit. It is important to notice that the CMOS does not have. Scientific and Cultural Facts Tamil 2,103 views. M2 is a common-source stage with output resistance the input resistance of M1 and DC bias from M3. To further improve the differential gain PMOS devices (M5+, M6+ and M5–, M6–) are added. In this project, I first characterize 4 transistors that I will later use to construct my Common Source Amplifier (PMOS and NMOS transistor input) designs. In this example, the signal enters the gate, and exits the drain. 2GHz and a gain of 53dB has. The configuration, shown in Figure 1, demonstrates the NMOS transistor used as the common source amplifier. The common source amplifier is an important topology to be familiar with for high gain applications - in single-ended signal situations, the common-source amplifier offers high gain and high input resistance. 3 Common-Gate Stage 7. Common-Emitter Amplifier Example Schematic diagram To enter the schematic select the resistor and ground symbol from the tools menu and the transistor and voltage sources by clicking and then choosing “npn” and “voltage” in the dialog that opens.